By Dr. Violeta Moreno-Lax, Lecturer in Law, Queen Mary University of London

This is the second part of a two-part blog. See here for part I.

Part II

Drawing on Part I of this post, the object of Part II is to determine the extent of the margin of appreciation available to Member States under Article 25 CCV. On the basis of the conclusion from Part I that the Community Code on Visas (CCV) applies to X and X (Case PPU C-638 X, X v Belgium), what remains to be established to answer thoroughly the questions of the referring court is the applicability of the Charter of Fundamental Rights (CFR) and the consequences ensuing in such situation. Continue reading »

Nous publions ci-dessous le discours que Bruno Nascimbene, Professeur de droit européen à l’Université de Milan et membre du Réseau Odysseus pour l’Italie, a prononcé à Strasbourg le 27 janvier 2017 lors d’un séminaire organisé à l’occasion de la cérémonie d’ouverture de l’année judiciaire de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme.

Introduction

Si l’on se réfère tant aux demandeurs d’asile qu’aux migrants, le non-refoulement est un sujet sensible, voire délicat, engageant le droit d’un point de vue aussi bien théorique que pratique.

La protection des droits de l’homme fait partie intégrante du droit international: non seulement parce que les règles conventionnelles à leur sujet sont devenues un corpus normatif important, mais aussi parce qu’une grande partie de ces droits essentiels (droit à la vie, à la sûreté de la personne) font partie du droit coutumier. Le principe de non-refoulement est à ce titre reconnu comme un droit de l’homme que tous les États membres de la Communauté internationale garantissent à la personne en tant que telle.

L’émergence et l’affirmation des droits de l’homme ont posé des limites importants à la souveraineté étatique au fil du temps. Dans ce cadre évolutif, ce sont surtout la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme et, au niveau européen, la Convention européenne de sauvegarde des droits de l’homme (CEDH), qui ont joué un rôle fondamental. Les  migrants et les réfugiés ont des droits qui appartiennent aux droits de l’homme suite à leur évolution récente. Ce sont également des personnes considérées comme vulnérables ayant besoin d’une protection spéciale. Continue reading »

By Dr. Violeta Moreno-Lax, Lecturer in Law, Queen Mary University of London

This is the first part of a two-part blog. See here for part II.

Part I

On 7 February 2017, Advocate General Mengozzi handed down his Opinion in the case of X, X v État belge, regarding the right to visas of limited territorial validity (LTV) on humanitarian grounds when there is a risk that an applicant will be exposed to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment. The Advocate General’s opinion was handed down against the backdrop of difficult negotiations between the European Parliament and the Council on provisions for humanitarian visas in the recast Community Code on Visas. This blog post, published in two parts, was prepared before Advocate General Mengozzi handed down his Opinion in X, X, but it takes into account this opinion. It was presented at the 2nd Annual Conference of the ODYSSEUS Network on 10 February 2017.

This post draws on Chapters 4 (visas), 7 (EU Charter), 8 (non-refoulement), 9 (asylum), and 10 (remedies) of Accessing Asylum in Europe (OUP, forthcoming in 2017), and takes account of previous research here, here, here, and here (see further Academia). Continue reading »

Par Henri LabayleCentre de Documentation et de Recherches Européennes (CDRE)  

CDRE

Les polémiques entourant l’application de l’Executive Order signé le 25 janvier 2017 par Donald Trump, président des Etats Unis nouvellement élu, interdisant temporairement l’entrée aux Etats-Unis aux ressortissants de sept pays et suspendant le jeu de la protection internationale, ont quitté les colonnes médiatiques pour pénétrer les prétoires. Motivé par le désir de lutter préventivement contre le terrorisme, selon ses auteurs, et par une volonté discriminatoire envers les musulmans, selon ses détracteurs, le texte pose de graves problèmes juridiques.

L’attention qu’on lui porte ne doit pas masquer qu’au même moment, le 31 janvier 2017, la Cour de justice de l’Union prononçait un arrêt important sur les liens qui peuvent être établis entre la nécessité de lutter contre le terrorisme et le dispositif protecteur des réfugiés politiques (CJUE, 31 janvier 2017, Lounani, C-573/16).

Si l’on ajoute à ces épisodes majeurs l’émoi provoqué en Turquie le 26 janvier 2017 par le refus de la Cour suprême grecque d’accepter l’extradition de huit militaires turcs qualifiés eux-aussi de « terroristes », on mesure à quel point les liaisons dangereuses désormais établies au grand jour entre le droit des réfugiés et la lutte contre le terrorisme deviennent monnaie courante et alimentent le débat public, juridique ou pas.

Ce constat mérite un éclairage et suscite une réflexion d’autant plus nécessaire que ces liaisons sont parfois fondées, malheureusement. Depuis le 11 septembre 2001, la lutte contre le terrorisme met en question ouvertement le jeu des règles du droit des réfugiés, à force d’amalgames (I), au risque de fragiliser la protection qui est due à ces réfugiés (II). D’où l’intérêt d’un contrôle attentif du juge, interne comme européen (III). Continue reading »

by Daniel Thym, Universität Konstanz

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This is the final post in our series of blogs aimed at providing an enriching background to the topics that will be discussed during our annual conference titled “Beyond ‘crisis’? The State of Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in the EU” , which will take place in Brussels on 10 February 2017.

The crisis of the Common European Asylum System has been a major political and academic concern over the past months. Various issues were discussed at length on this blog and elsewhere, including the EU-Turkey Statement, the Commission Proposal for a Dublin IV Regulation and, most recently, cooperation with countries in Northern Africa. By contrast, the three Commission Proposals on a revision of the Reception Conditions Directive and the adoption of novel Asylum Procedures and Qualification Regulations, which were published just before last year’s summer recess on 13 July 2016, have received little attention so far. This contribution shows how closer inspection of the proposals helps to identify core challenges in the reform of the CEAS.

Continue reading »

by Dr. Madalina Bianca Moraru, Research Fellow, Centre for Judicial Cooperation, European University Institute

We continue our series of blogs aimed at providing an enriching background to the topics that will be discussed during our annual conference titled “Beyond ‘crisis’? The State of Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in the EU” , which will take place in Brussels on 10 February 2017.

Immigration detention under the Return Directive (RD) has been the subject of numerous academic studies, reports and practitioners’ manuals. So far the focus has been primarily on the increasing phenomenon of criminalisation of irregular stay/entry (see, for instance, the REDIAL blog commentary of the Celaj case), the relation between immigration detention under the Return Directive and criminal law, or the EU Member States compliance with the most controversial provisions of the Return Directive related to immigration detention. Judicial scrutiny of immigration detention was usually assessed from the European perspective (notably, the standards set by the ECtHR and the CJEU case law). However, the life of a case does not finish in these forums, it is up to the national courts to implement these judgments, which sometimes implies difficult choices to be made by national courts, such as: disapplying national legislation; striking down established administrative practice; re-designing relations between the judiciary and the administration; or challenging judicial approaches of superior national courts.

This contribution focuses on a less researched aspect, namely the role of national courts in the implementation of pre-removal detention measures. In particular, the national courts’ contribution to clarifying the abstract EU concept of ‘risk of absconding’ and its standards of application, their exercise of judicial control over the open ended national definitions of this notion and the detention orders issued by administrative authorities. The contribution will show how instances of vertical judicial interactions (between European supranational courts and domestic courts) and horizontal judicial interactions (among various national courts) have contributed to the enhancement of fundamental rights of detainees in return proceedings by way of: clarifying convoluted EU notions, such as ‘the risk of absconding’; re-shaping national legislation and jurisprudence in conflict with the Return Directive, EU Charter and the ECHR; and re-drawing the division of powers between the judiciary and the administration on the adoption and control of pre-removal detention. This contribution draws on a broader study of domestic judicial scrutiny of pre-removal detention of TCNs across the 28 Member States (REDIAL Research Report 2016/05), which concludes a more general study on judicial implementation of all the Return Directive’s main chapters (REDIAL European Reports) funded by the European Return Fund. This project is accompanied by a Database putting almost 1000 of the national cases used in the research studies at the disposal of all interested persons.

Continue reading »